I don't come here often anymore, the site is trash, and slow. Too bad, it used to be good.
You're right, they don't understand.
The source is the original purpose of lug nuts, and studs. I suggest you look that up.
They're also good enough for Lotus, if you didn't know (and you didn't).
Hmm, where to begin.
Sorry you think the site is trash. Perhaps you should avoid logging in altogether? We can arrange that for you, if you find it hard to stay away on your own.
When the very people who manufacture
rims state "The ring is only used at the time of fastening", you assert they don't understand what they're saying?
It's been a while since I've read up on "the original purpose of lug nuts, and studs", so please, tell me where to look it up. While your at it, can you please also point us to the relevant ASTM or ASME standard concerning rings? Or maybe a Phd thesis on the "Importance of centering rings as an indexing device in wheel rim interfaces" ?
Mind you, I did draw countless force diagrams in ENG 200 level classes, involving fasteners (and rivets, welds, etc.) but I don't remember centering rings, indexing pins, or the like figuring into it, likely because it was considered so self-evident to beginning engineering students, so as to not merit mention.
Re the pix of the 240R wheels, were those factory installed, or options? Would make a fascinating data point if so - i.e was it the Hethel guys putting them on, or maybe some race team mechanics?
Don't get me wrong, I run rings on most of my vehicles, but its only to help with getting the rim on, and getting the lugs started, that's it.